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Trends in World Bleached Chemical Pulp Production: 1990-2002

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SUMMARY

Elemental Chlorine-Free (ECF) pulp, bleached with chlorine dioxide, continues to dominate the world bleached chemical pulp market. In 2002, ECF production reached over 64 million tonnes, totaling more than three-quarters of world market share. In contrast, TCF (Totally Chlorine-Free) production maintained a small niche market at just over 5% of world bleached chemical pulp production.

ECF is acknowledged as a core component of Best Available Technology (BAT). New studies continue to document ECF's compatibility with sustainable eco-systems, and papermakers' desire for ECF's superior product quality remain unabated. With such strong sustainable attributes, the new bleached chemical production coming to the market in the next few years will use ECF-based bleaching technology.

WORLD BLEACHED CHEMICAL PULP PRODUCTION PROFILE

In 2002, ECF commanded the highest worldwide market share at greater than 75%, totaling more than 64 million tonnes. ECF market share continues to grow in all pulp producing regions. This trend will continue as new production planned in Chile, Brazil, Germany, and China incorporates ECF bleaching.

Scandinavia

In Scandinavia, ECF accounts for over 78% of bleached chemical pulp production. Conversely, TCF market share peaked in 1997, and has modestly declined over the last 5 years as a number of companies producing TCF on a campaign-basis have exited the market [1].

Japan

Japan produces approximately 8 million tonnes of bleached chemical pulp and began converting production to ECF in 1996. In 2002, an additional 400,000 tonnes was converted. ECF now represents over 25% of Japanese bleached chemical pulp production. Continued growth is expected in 2003, consistent with the commitment made by the major bleached pulp producers in Japan to eliminate chlorine, and in most cases, convert to ECF.

North America

In North America, ECF production now represents over 95% of bleached chemical pulp production. The transition to ECF was essentially completed in 2001 as the balance of U.S. production came into compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Cluster Rule. The Cluster Rule is based, in part, on ECF as Best Available Technology (BAT) for bleached paper grade kraft and soda mills [2].

South America

In South America, ECF production is growing rapidly and in 2002 represented over 60% of bleached chemical pulp. The market share will increase dramatically over the next few years as more than 1.4 million tonnes of new ECF production comes on stream in Chile and Brazil [3,4].

LOOKING AHEAD

Significantly, the European Community, in its Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) reference document, recently recognized ECF as a component of "Best Available Techniques" (BAT) [5]. In addition, a recent peer-reviewed investigation of the aquatic environmental impact of TCF and ECF-based bleaching reached the following conclusion [6].

"Studies comparing ECF and TCF effluents confirmed the absence of significant differences in biological effects in the aquatic environment"
- Institute for Papermaking, Darmstadt Technical University, Germany

Finally, with it's acknowledged environmental compatibility, cost-competitiveness, and high quality desired by producers and users alike, ECF's market share can only continue to grow.

SOURCES

The Alliance for Environmental Technology, "Trends in World Bleached Chemical Pulp Production: 1990-2001," May 2002.

2002 AET International Survey

REFERENCES

1. Rodden, G. TCF Has Settled into It's Niche in the Market: It's a Mature Technology. Pulp & Paper International. August 2003.

2. Federal Register, Vol. 63, No. 72. April 15, 1998.

3. Celulosa Arauco y Constitucion S.A. Annual Report, (2002).

4. Aracruz Celulose S.A. Aracruz Inaugurates 3rd Pulp Line and Increases Production Capacity to 2 Million Tons. News Release. August 8, 2002.

5. European Commission. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC): Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Pulp and Paper Industry. December 2001.

6. Hamm, U. and Göttshing, L. ECF- and TCF Bleached Pulps: A Comparison of their Environmental Impact. German Pulp and Paper Association VDP - INFOR project (No. 19), 2002.

APPENDIX (ALL DATA IN MILLIONS OF TONNES*)

WORLD
 
ECF
TCF
OTHER**
1990
3.5
0.1
62.7
1991
8.2
0.4
58.2
1992
14.9
1.2
51.8
1993
20.0
2.6
46.8
1994
25.7
4.1
40.8
1995
31.2
4.7
36.8
1996
34.0
4.5
35.0
1997
39.0
5.0
34.4
1998
43.6
5.1
31.4
1999
48.8
5.0
24.1
2000
54.4
5.2
20.8
2001
63.7
4.5
14.9
2002
64.7
4.8
14.8

SCANDINAVIA
 
ECF
TCF
OTHER
1990
2.3
0.1
6.5
1991
4.0
0.3
4.7
1992
6.6
0.6
2.0
1993
7.7
1.3
1.1
1994
8.5
2.2
0.0
1995
8.3
2.8
0.0
1996
7.6
2.6
0.0
1997
8.3
3.1
0.0
1998
8.8
3.2
0.0
1999
9.2
3.0
0.0
2000
9.2
3.0
0.0
2001
9.1
2.6
0.0
2002
9.0
2.5
0.0

NORTH AMERICA
ECF
TCF
OTHER
1990
1.2
0.0
37.1
1991
3.0
0.0
35.3
1992
5.4
0.1
32.8
1993
7.9
0.2
30.0
1994
11.5
0.3
26.5
1995
16.4
0.3
22.0
1996
18.5
0.3
20.6
1997
22.0
0.3
17.2
1998
24.6
0.3
14.2
1999
28.6
0.3
10.2
2000
31.4
0.3
7.4
2001
36.3
0.1
1.6
2002
36.4
0.1
1.6

REST OF WORLD (Includes Eastern and Western Europe, Chile, Brazil, South East Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan)
ECF
TCF
OTHER
1990
0.1
0.0
19.1
1991
1.3
0.1
18.2
1992
2.9
0.6
17.0
1993
4.4
1.1
15.7
1994
5.8
1.6
14.3
1995
6.5
1.6
14.7
1996
7.9
1.8
14.4
1997
8.8
1.7
14.7
1998
10.2
1.6
14.9
1999
11.0
1.7
14.0
2000
13.9
2.0
13.3
2001
18.3
1.7
13.4
2002
19.3
2.1
13.0

 


* All data has been rounded to the nearest tenth
** Pulp bleached with some molecular chlorine