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Trends in World Bleached Chemical Pulp Production: 1990-2001

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Summary

Elemental Chlorine-Free (ECF) pulp, bleached with chlorine dioxide, continues to grow and now dominates the world bleached chemical pulp market. In 2001, ECF production reached over 63 million tonnes, totaling more than three-quarters of the world market share. Market data show ECF grew at an annual rate of 17% in 2001. In contrast, TCF (Totally Chlorine-Free) production declined slightly, maintaining a small niche market at just over 5% of world bleached chemical pulp production. Government organizations increasingly recognize and document ECF's proven pollution prevention record and acknowledge ECF as a component of Best Available Technology (BAT). Producers and users alike continue to desire ECF's superior product quality. It is no wonder that with such continuing strong government support and overall environmental integrity, new bleached chemical production coming on to the market will use ECF-based bleaching technology.

World Bleached Chemical Pulp Production Profile

In 2001, ECF commanded the highest worldwide market share at greater than 75%, totaling more than 63 million tonnes. ECF market share continues to grow in all pulp producing regions. This trend will continue as new production planned in South America and Germany will incorporate ECF bleaching [1-3].

World Bleached Chemical Pulp Production: 1990-2001

Scandinavia

In Scandinavia, ECF continues to dominate and is increasingly recognized for its advantages [4]. In 2001, ECF accounted for over 75% of bleached chemical pulp production --- more than triple that of TCF. Significantly, new fibrelines in Scandinavia are ECF-based [5].

Scandinavian Bleached Chemical Pulp Production: 1990-2001

Japan

Japan produces approximately 8 million tonnes of bleached chemical pulp. Consistent with the commitment made by the major bleached pulp producers in Japan to eliminate chlorine and in most cases, convert to ECF, Japanese ECF production continues to grow at a rapid pace [6,7]. In 2001, an additional 800,000 tonnes of pulp was converted to ECF, and now represents almost one-quarter of all bleached chemical pulp production in Japan.

North America

In North America, ECF production grew by more than 15% to represent over 95% of bleached chemical pulp production. Separately, in 2001 Canadian production of ECF remained steady, holding more than 93% of the market. In the United States, ECF grew substantially, with another 5 million tonnes entering the market in 2001 as many mills came into compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Cluster Rule. The Cluster Rule is based in part on ECF as Best Available Technology (BAT) for bleached paper grade kraft and soda mills [8]. The transition to ECF is essentially complete in the United States as ECF production now represents 96% of bleached chemical pulp production.

North America Bleached Chemical Pulp Production: 1990-2001

Looking Ahead

Significantly, ECF was recently recognized as a component of "Best Available Techniques" (BAT) by the European Community in its Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) reference document [9].

In addition, a recent Scientific Advisory Panel, appointed by the Province of British Columbia in Canada, reiterated the environmental compatibility of ECF-based bleaching with the ambient aquatic receiving environment [10].

Finally with its recognition as a component of BAT by the European Commission, its acknowledged environmental compatibility, its cost-competitiveness, and high quality desired by producers and users alike, growth for ECF is ensured.

Sources

The Alliance for Environmental Technology, "Trends in World Bleached Chemical Pulp Production: 1990-2000," October 1999. 2001 AET International Survey

References

1. Aracruz News. No. 19, Year 6. April, 2001.

2. Stendal Finds Funds for Pulp. Pulp and Paper International. October 2001.

3. Mesto Paper to Supply Pulping System for Arauco Valdivia in Chile. Pulp Market Update Feb. 6-12, 2002. Paperloop.com

4. AlÚn, R. Environmental Perspectives on Scandinavia's Pulp and Paper Industry. Tappi Journal, June 2001.

5. Press Release, Stora Enso Oy, May 1999.

6. Nippon Paper to Stop Using Chlorine by 2005. Dow Jones News Service, New York, NY. June, 1999.

7. Four Japan Paper Mills Phasing Out Chlorine. Chemical News & Intelligence. October 1999.

8. Federal Register, Vol. 63, No. 72. April 15, 1998.

9. European Commission. Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC): Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Pulp and Paper Industry. July 2000.

10. Review of Scientific Basis for AOX Effluent Standard in British Columbia. Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection. Victoria, B.C., March 2002.

World

ECF
TCF
Other
1990
3.5
0.1
62.7
1991
8.2
0.4
58.2
1992
14.9
1.2
51.8
1993
20.0
2.6
46.8
1994
25.7
4.1
40.8
1995
31.2
4.7
36.8
1996
34.0
4.5
35.0
1997
38.4
5.0
34.4
1998
43.1
5.1
31.4
1999
48.8
5.0
24.1
2000
54.4
5.2
20.8
2001
63.7
4.5
14.9

Scandinavia

ECF
TCF
Other
1990
2.3
0.1
6.5
1991
4.0
0.3
4.7
1992
6.6
0.6
2.0
1993
7.7
1.3
1.1
1994
8.5
2.2
0.0
1995
8.3
2.8
0.0
1996
7.6
2.6
0.0
1997
8.3
3.1
0.0
1998
8.8
3.2
0.0
1999
9.2
3.0
0.0
2000
9.2
3.0
0.0
2001
9.1
2.6
0.0

United States

ECF
TCF
Other
1990
0.5
0.0
26.8
1991
1.6
0.0
25.6
1992
2.8
0.0
24.4
1993
4.0
0.2
23.0
1994
6.0
0.2
21.0
1995
9.1
0.3
17.9
1996
10.4
0.2
16.6
1997
13.3
0.2
13.8
1998
15.5
0.2
11.4
1999
18.1
0.2
8.9
2000
20.7
0.2
6.3
2001
25.9
0.1
0.9

Canada

ECF
TCF
Other
1990
0.7
0.0
10.3
1991
1.3
0.0
9.7
1992
2.6
0.0
8.4
1993
3.9
0.1
7.0
1994
5.5
0.1
5.5
1995
7.3
0.0
4.2
1996
8.1
0.0
4.0
1997
8.7
0.0
3.4
1998
9.1
0.0
2.8
1999
10.5
0.0
1.3
2000
10.7
0.0
1.1
2001
10.5
0.0
0.7

Rest of World (Includes Eastern and Western Europe, Chile, Brazil, South East Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan)

ECF
TCF
Other
1990
0.1
0.0
19.1
1991
1.3
0.1
18.2
1992
2.9
0.6
17.0
1993
4.4
1.1
15.7
1994
5.8
1.6
14.3
1995
6.5
1.6
14.7
1996
7.9
1.8
14.4
1997
8.2
1.8
17.2
1998
9.7
1.7
17.2
1999
11.0
1.7
14.0
2000
13.9
2.0
13.3
2001
18.3
1.7
13.4

*All data has been rounded to the nearest tenth.