Table 1 RISK CHARACTERIZATION QUOTIENTS FOR CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS FOUND IN MILL EFFLUENTS PRODUCED FROM BLEACHING PROCESSES WITH HIGH CHLORINE DIOXIDE SUBSTITUTION (COMPUTED BY DIVIDING THE TREATED EFFLUENT CONCENTRATION BY THE EFFECT CONCENTRATION)
Compound Species Response
criterion
Concentration of effect µg/L Mean Concentration in effluent, µg/L 95th Percentile concentration in effluent, µg/L Risk characterization
Observed mean
conc./effect conc
High
exposure risk charcterization
Observed mean
conc./effect conc
Number of samples analysed
Percent chlorine dioxide subsitution 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70%
2-Chlorophenol FW Biota EPA acute
criterion
4380 0 - 0 - - - - - 33 0
4-Chlorophenol Rainbow trout 96 h LC50 1900 - - - - - - - - 0 0
Rainbow trout fry 96 h LC50 24 - - - - - - - - 0 0
2,6-Dichloro-
phenol
Rainbow trout 96 h LC50 4100 - - - - - - - - 0 0
2,4-Dichloro-
phenol
Rainbow trout fry 96 h LC50 2600 0.03 1.10 0.20 3.41 0.00001 0.0004 0.0001 0.001 34 25
FW Biota EPA acute criterion 2020 0.03 1.10 0.20 3.41 0.00001 0.0005 0.0001 0.002 34 25
FW Biota EPA chronic criterion 365 0.03 1.10 0.20 3.41 0.00008 0.003 0.0006 0.009 34 25
2,3,4-Trichloro-
phenol


No data 0.00 0.70 0.00 2.74 - - - - 8 9
2,3,5-Trichloro-
phenol


No data 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - - - 7 9
2,4,6-Trichloro-
phenol
Rainbow trout 96 h LC50 730 0.03 2.13 0.43 6.54 0.00005 0.00291 0.0006 0.009 60 34
2,4,5-Trichloro-
phenol
Rainbow trout fry 96 h LC50 900 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - - - 27 34
FW Biota EPA acute criterion 100 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - - - 27 34
FW Biota EPA chronic criterion 63 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - - - 27 34
2,3,4,5-Tetra-
chlorophenol


No data 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.58 - - - - 16 9
Compound Species Response
criterion
Concentration of effect µg/L Mean Concentration in effluent, µg/L 95th Percentile concentration in effluent, µg/L Risk characterization
Observed mean
conc./effect conc
High
exposure risk charcterization
Observed mean
conc./effect conc
Number of samples analysed
Percent chlorine dioxide subsitution 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70%
2,3,4,6-Tetra-
chlorophenol
Rainbow trout 96 h LC50 210 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - - - 51 34
2,3,5,6-Tetra-
chlorophenol


No data 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - - - 7 9
Pentachloro-
phenal
Rainbow trout 96 h LC50 160 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - - - 60 34
FW Biota EPA acute criterion 20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - - - 60 34
FW Biota EPA chronic criterion 13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - - - 60 34
4-chloroguaiacol Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
700 0.32 0.00 0.88 0.00 0.0005 - 0.001 - 33 25
3,4-Dichloro-
guaiacol
Salmon
(O. nerca)
96 h LC50 2700 - 0.56 - 2.80 - 0.0002 - 0.001 0 25
Algae
(S. capri-
cornutum
)
EC50 270 - 0.56 - 2.80 - 0.002 - 0.01 0 25
4,5-Dichloro-
guaiacol
Rainbow trout 96 h LC50 2200 0.03 1.82 0.17 4.96 0.00001 0.001 0.0001 0.002 34 25
Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
300 0.03 1.82 0.17 4.96 0.00009 0.006 0.0006 0.02 34 25
4,6-Dichloro-
guaiacol


No data 0.02 0.08 0.11 0.89 - - - - 33 25
3,4,5-Tricloro-
guaiacol
Rainbow Trout 96 h LC50 750 0.19 6.23 1.49 13.17 0.0003 0.008 0.002 0.02 60 34
Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
200 0.19 6.23 1.49 13.17 0.001 0.03 0.007 0.07 60 34
3,4,6-Tricloro-
guaiacol


No data 0.01 0.49 0.09 2.45 - - - - 53 25
Compound Species Response
criterion
Concentration of effect µg/L Mean Concentration in effluent, µg/L 95th Percentile concentration in effluent, µg/L Risk characterization
Observed mean
conc./effect conc
High
exposure risk charcterization
Observed mean
conc./effect conc
Number of samples analysed
Percent chlorine dioxide subsitution 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70%
4,5,6-Trichloro-
quaiacol
Rainbow trout 96 h LC50 800 0.03 3.68 0.45 7.01 0.00004 0.005 0.0006 0.009 54 25
Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
300 0.03 3.68 0.45 7.01 0.0001 0.01 0.002 0.02 54 25
Tetrachloro-
quaiacol
Rainbow trout 96 h LC50 300 0.08 1.74 1.03 6.46 0.0003 0.006 0.003 0.02 61 34
Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
200 0.08 1.74 1.03 6.46 0.0004 0.009 0.005 0.03 61 34
4-Chlorocatechol Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
700 0.04 1.03 0.19 4.18 0.00005 0.001 0.0003 0.006 33 25
3,4-Dichloro-
catechol
Salmon
(O. nerca)
96 h LC50 2700 0.00 0.47 0.04 2.31 1.1e-06 0.0002 1.4e-05 0.0009 33 25
Algae
(S. capri-
cornutum
)
EC50 1800 0.00 0.47 0.04 2.31 1.7e-06 0.0003 2.0e-05 0.001 33 25
3,5-Dichloro-
catechol
Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
500 0.00 1.26 0.04 4.12 0.00001 0.003 0.0001 0.008 33 25
4,5-Dichloro-
catechol
Rainbow trout 96 h LC50 100 0.16 6.65 0.64 12.26 0.002 0.07 0.006 0.1 34 25
Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
500 0.16 6.65 0.64 12.26 0.0003 0.01 0.001 0.02 34 25
3,4,5-Trichloro-
catechol
Rainbow Trout 96 h LC50 1000 0.09 16.03 0.86 48.56 0.00009 0.02 0.0009 0.05 60 34
Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
200 0.09 16.03 0.86 48.56 0.0005 0.08 0.004 0.02 60 34
Compound Species Response
criterion
Concentration of effect µg/L Mean Concentration in effluent, µg/L 95th Percentile concentration in effluent, µg/L Risk characterization
Observed mean
conc./effect conc
High
exposure risk charcterization
Observed mean
conc./effect conc
Number of samples analysed
Percent chlorine dioxide subsitution 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70% 100% 50-70%
3,4,6-Trichloro-
catechol
Brown trout 96 h LC50 900 0.02 0.16 0.29 1.26 0.00002 0.0002 0.0003 0.001 53 25
Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
350 0.02 0.16 0.29 1.26 0.00005 0.0005 0.0008 0.004 53 25
Tetrachloro-
catechol
Rainbow trout 96 h LC50 400 0.14 3.61 1.59 12.68 0.0003 0.009 0.004 0.03 60 34
Zebrafish Egg/larva
NOEC
150 0.14 3.61 1.59 12.68 0.0009 0.02 0.01 0.08 60 34
6-Chlorovanillin

No data 1.80 3.32 1.80 6.33 - - - - 1 25
5,6-Dichloro-
vanillin


No data 0.00 - 0.00 - - - - - 24 0
4,5-Dichloro-
veratrole


No data 0.00 - 0.00 - - - - - 34 0
3,4,5-Trichloro-
veratrole


No data 0.01 - 0.07 - - - - - 33 0
Tetrachloro-
veratrole


No data 0.00 - 0.00 - - - - - 33 0
Trichlorosyringol Zebrafish LOEC 800 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 - - - - 29 24
Compiled from publically available data submitted to regulatory agencies and Pryke et al., 1994; Stinchfield and Woods, 1994 and Kemeny and Krecklow, 1994)


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