of Ecological Risks Associated with the Use of Chlorine Dioxide for the
Bleaching of Pulp
Royal Roads University, 2005 Sooke Road, Victoria, BC, V9B 5Y2
Peter Hodson, School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University,
Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6
Karl-Johan Lehtinen, Finnish Environmental Research Group, Techniikantie,
12, Espoo, Finland, SF-02150
Bruce McKague, CanSyn Chem. Corp, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ont.,
M5S 1A4, CANADA.
John Rodgers, Department of Biology, University of Mississippi, University,
Keith Solomon, Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph,
Ontario, N1G 2W1, CANADA (Chair).
Table of Content
OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES
ENVIRONMENTAL FATE PROCESSES
LIST OF TABLES
previously detected in pulp mill final effluents (before and after
treatment) and expected environmental behavior
effluents, and process streams from pulp mills that are associated
with specific physiological responses of fish
of chronic toxicity tests using effluents from mills with ECF bleaching
criteria and hazard quotients for chlorinated compounds in mill
produced from bleaching processes with 100% chlorine dioxide substitution
assessment of chlorophenol TEQs exceeding the EPA FW criteria
LIST OF FIGURES
| Figure 1
risk assessment process as proposed for use under CEPA (Environment
process of pulp production under bleaching.
aromatic compounds identified from samples of degraded fulvic acid
both natural and bleached kraft mill effluents.
reaction of lignin with chlorine dioxide.
organic substances identified in effluent from ECF bleaching.
reaction of lignin with ozone.
representation of exposure pathways in pulp mill effluents.
and triterpenoids found in pulp mill effluents.
reactions in pulp mill effuents.
trends in total TCDD/TCDF loads from pulp mill in BC, Canada.
trends in concentration of TCDD/TCDF reported in mill effluents
in liver tissue EROD activity in rainbow trout exposed to 1/400
effluents from pulp mills and other sources.
of the tiers of risk assessment.
of concentration of tetrachloroguaiacol and tetrachlorocatechol
mills using 100% chlorine dioxide substitution compared to the most
of concentrations of all chlorinated phenols from mills using 100%
chlorine dioxide substitution expressed as pentachlorophenol TEQs
and compared to
assessment criteria for pentachlorophenol.
identified since 1993 in effluent from mills employing ECF bleaching
to Section 1